A marbled earthenware made by mixing clays of differing colours. Associated with
Thomas Whieldon, but manufactured by many potteries between about 1750 and 1820.
A vitreous stoneware introduced by Josiah Wedgwood in circa 1780. The name is from
a resemblance in shape to bamboo – an eastern novelty of the time. Caneware was fashionable
in the Regency period (c. 1795 – 1837).
A vitreous stoneware stained black with manganese dioxide, developed by Josiah Wedgwood.
A drab-coloured vitreous stoneware flagon originating in Germany in the 16th century,
with bearded mask decoration in relief.
Stained or naturally coloured clay bodies which fire to black.
Blanc de chine
Glazed white porcelain, usually in the form of ornamental ware and figures.
A vitrified stoneware body introduced by Josiah Wedgwood in the 1770s.
A generic term for a class of white vitrified semi-transparent stoneware developed
at Castleford, Yorkshire, in the late 18th century.
A stoneware stained black and fired at a temperature just sufficient to make it non-porous.
Ceramics made and/or decorated to commemorate a particular event. Typical commemorative
wares are those created to mark royal events – coronations, royal weddings, royal
births and jubilees. More generally, commemorative ware has been produced to mark
events of local or national note. Although covering the gamut of ceramics, tankards,
jugs, plaques, mugs and miniature wares have been favoured commemorative wares.
A cream coloured earthenware with an opaque, cream-coloured glaze. Creamware was
one of Josiah Wedgwood’s early innovations, introduced in the 1760s. Wedgwood incrementally
improved the body and glaze to the point where the quality and look of his Creamware
threatened the dominance of porcelain in the houses of the rich and famous. Wedgwood’s
creamware was widely copied by other Staffordshire manufacturers and he later changed
the name to that of ‘Queensware’.
A tin glazed earthenware. The name was originally used for Dutch wares until Georgian
times, when it became a general descriptor for tin glazed wares made in England as
well as Holland.
Tin-glazed earthenware. The term fatience is usually reserved for tin-glazed earthenware
of European origin, but the term was also used in Staffordshire and by Henry Doulton
for tin-glazed wares produced at his Lambeth factory from the 1870s.
A generic term for plates, and other planar ceramics See ‘Hollow Ware’.
Earthenware body with the addition of powdered calcined flint.
An English term for tin-glazed earthenware.
A fine rose- coloured version of red stoneware
Salt glazed stoneware
Stoneware glazed by throwing salt (sodium chloride) into the kiln during a high temperatures
firing. The salt is vaporized combines with components from the clay to form a transparent
glassy surface on the wares. Only stonewares could be salt glazed because of the
high temperatures needed for vapourisation of the salt in the kiln. Salt glazing
was replaced by lead-based glazes on domestic wares from the mid-18th century. Its
use is now confined to studio and art pottery. There are different categories of
salt-glazed stoneware depending on the body used.
A class of earthenware decorated with slip poured or painted over the biscuit prior
to glazing. Coloured slips may be used. Slip decorated wares date from the mid-16th
Extremely fine-bodied stoneware stained with colour pigments.
A figural or character jug sometimes of grotesque from. Said to be named after Toby
Fillpot (Henry Elwes) recorded on a print published on his death in about 1761. Made
by numerous manufacturers, the best know of which is probably Doulton.
An earthenware body produced by staining the biscuit with metallic oxides which were
later absorbed into a transparent lead-based glaze. Tortoiseshell Ware was produced,
most famously, by Thomas Whieldon in the mid-18th century. Also know as Whieldon
A wall mounted ceramic vase
A deformed or otherwise defective ceramic item discarded at manufacture.
A term used to describe large, slip-decorated earthenware meat dishes made in the
19th and early 20th century. A reincarnation of earlier slipware, Welsh Ware was
made in rural potteries long after more advanced earthenware bodies and decoration
had been developed.
Products of the Fife Pottery, Scotland, manufactured between 1880 and 1930. Wares
include toilet sets and ornamental pottery. Wemyss ware was decorated mainly with
A term used to describe the agate ware and tortoiseshell ware made by, or in the
style of, Thomas Whieldon.
Minature decorative ceramics made in the form of animals, birds or everyday items.
Wade ‘Whimseys’ are the best known.
White ceramics that have been glazed, but not decorated. Often sold by manufacturers
to other businesses specialising in decoration.
Utility ware (kitchenware) made in a pale to deep yellow body from circa 1830-1900.
The second class of ‘Pratt Ware’ are the pot lids and other domestic earthenware
decorated with under-glaze polychrome transfer prints. The firm of F. & R. Pratt
(descendents of the William Pratt referred to earlier) were the first to manufacture
multi-coloured pot lids and these are also termed ‘Pratt Ware’. The Pratt’s artist
and engraver was Jesse Austin and the lids were decorated with three colours plus
brown for the key plate (in the case of the Pratt factory). Other manufacturers copied
the Pratt’s process and the other significant makers of Pratt Ware were T. J. & J
Mayer, John Ridgway, Bates & Co. and their successors at the Cauldon Place Works
Brown-Westhead Moore & Co. Although pot lids are the best known Pratt Ware, the name
is also applied to the domestic earthenware decorated using the same colourful underglaze
Early (circa 1780-1830), ‘Pratt Ware’ is a creamy earthenware, usually with relief
moulding, decorated beneath the glaze with a colour palette of black, cobalt blue,
orange, yellow and green. These are metal oxide colours suitable for the high-temperature
firing used for the ware. The name ‘Pratt Ware’ is believed to have originated from
an attribution in a 1909 issue of The Connoisseur magazine based on a specimen with
the name ‘Pratt’ on the base and probably manufactured by William Pratt. Similar
wares were made by potteries throughout the United Kingdom including those at Leeds,
Castleford and the Edinburgh potteries.
A generic term for ceramic cups, mugs, jugs, and other tablewares with a deeply concave
interior. See ‘Flatware’.
Ceramics decorated in intricate patterns using a colour palette of predominantly
deep blue, iron red and gold. he imari colours and patterns originated as English
adaptations of Japanese export porcelains. Royal Crown Derby is the best known manufacturer
of imari wares (to this day!), but imari wares were produced by most manufacturers
of bone china.
Glazed parian ware. Ivory porcelain was a translucent porcelain paste containing
felspar developed in the 19th century.
Brownish-red earthenware covered with a thick black glaze, named for one pottery
known to have made it from c.1751.
Japanese export ware
Porcelain made in Japan specifically for the European market.
Fine-bodied stoneware dipped in coloured slip.
A fine-bodied stoneware introduced by Josiah Wedgwood in 17xx. The original jasper
ware was pigmented through the whole body, but later, Wedgwood introduced dipped
jasper ware with the colour applied only to the outside. The original Jasper Ware
colours were xxxx.
A generic term for earthenware glazed with a glossy black glaze. ‘Jet’ teapots were
a common Staffordshire product up to the Second World War.
A ceramic lace manufactured by dipping lace into wet slip followed by modelling,
drying and firing in a kiln. The technique originated in France and was used by Mintons
in the mid-19th century.
A heavy earthenware made from a body that includes blast-furnace slag.
A decorating technique using metallic oxides to impart a lustrous finish to a ceramic.
A brightly coloured (usually), glossy, stoneware or earthenware with a general resemblance
to the original Italian tin glazed maiolica earthenware. English majolica was first
produced by Herbert Minton between 1851 and 1862 using a heavy stoneware body and
a tin-based glaze.
Nanking Ware (Nankeen Ware)
A generic term for the blue and white porcelain manufactured at Jingdezhen and shipped
to Europe through the port of Nanking.
Dessert wares in the shape of a Nautilus shell. Originally made by Josiah Wedgwood
in earthenware (Queen's Ware) in the 1770s, but copied in other bodies by other potteries.
A drab- coloured salt glazed stoneware made around Nottingham from circa 1680.
A marble-like, unglazed porcelain body containing feldspar introduced in 1842 by
William Copeland and named after the Greek island of Paros. Parian, with its marble-like
qualities was widely used for busts and statuary.
An earthenware body introduced by Josiah Wedgwood in circa 1780. Pearlware was a
lighter coloured version of Wedgwood’s creamware produced by adding calcined flint
and china clay to the paste. Pearlware was an ideal ground for underglaze transfer
A vitrified stoneware introduced by Josiah Wedgwood in the 1790s and used for the
manufacture of cooking and serving ware. The defining characteristics of Piecrust
Ware are the pastry-like colours and the use of piecrust decoration.
Gaudy Welsh is the term used to characterise a class of ceramics defined by their
colour palette and decorating style. The term was coined by the American historian
Prof. Howard Williams for the simple domestic and ornamental wares produced by numerous
potteries and hand decorated with mainly floral motifs using a palette of underglaze
cobalt blue, russet (orange-brown), green and pinkish copper lustre. The Welsh Potteries
(Swansea,Cambrian, Ynysmeaudwy, Llanelli etc).were important producers, but most
Gaudy Welsh pottery was manufactured in the North Staffordshire potteries – where
the style probably originated. The period of production was from the 1820s to the
late 19th century. Although primarily for domestic sale, large quantities were exported
to North America. Most Gaudy Welsh ware is earthenware and is unmarked. Allertons
(Charles Allerton & Son Ltd), continued manufacture of Gaudy Welsh wares as a special
line well into the 20th century
The term ‘Pratt Ware’ is applied to two classes of polychrome, under-glaze-decorated
earthenware. Both were manufactured by the company of F. & R. Pratt & Co. of Fenton,
however, the Pratt business was only one of many manufacturers of ‘Pratt Ware’.
An alternative name for Wedgwood’s creamware, applied later in recognition of the
wide acceptance of the ware, including by royalty.
A vitreous reddish-coloured stoneware much used, because of its fine texture, for
Red Stoneware coffee pot
An unglazed redware coffee pot, circa 1760, maker unknown. The pot is decorated with
applied flowers and scroll work and the handle and spout show Rococo influence.